Conditionals

Standard

Zero Conditional

  • probability: 100% (exactly will happen)
  • time: any time
  • modals: when, if
  • If + [condition: present simple] + [result: present simple]
  • [result: present simple] + if + [condition: present simple]
  • example: If you heat ice, it melts

First Conditional

  • probability: 50% (there is a real possibility that this condition will happen)
  • time: future
  • modals: will, shall, can, or may
  • If + [condition: present simple] + [result: WILL + base verb]
  • [result: WILL + base verb] + if + [condition: present simple]
  • example: If it rains, I will stay at home

Second Conditional

  • probability: 10% (there is an unreal possibility that the condition will happen)
  • time: future
  • modals: would, should, could or might
  • If + [condition: past simple] + [result: WOULD + base verb]
  • [result: WOULD + base verb] + if + [condition: past simple]
  • example: If I won the lottery, I would buy a car

Third Conditional

  • probability: 0% (no possibility because it’s already happened in the past)
  • time: past
  • modals: would have, should have, could have, might have
  • If + [condition: past perfect] + [result: WOULD HAVE + past participle]
  • [result: WOULD HAVE + past participle] + if + [condition: past simple]
  • example: If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car

reference : english conditionals

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